Keyword: real-time
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MOM310 Nonlinear System Identification of Superconducting Magnets of RHIC at BNL diagnostics, superconducting-magnet, dipole, database 1
  • P. Chitnis
    Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA
  • K.A. Brown
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The Quench Detection System (QDS) of RHIC detects the Superconducting (SC) magnet quenches by voltage sensing. The real-time voltage across the SC magnet is compared with a predicted voltage from a behavioral model, a deviation from which triggers the quench event and energy extraction. Due to the limitations of the magnet model, many false quench events are generated that affect the RHIC availability. This work is targeted towards remodeling the magnets through nonlinear system identification for the improvement in QDS reliability. The nonlinear electrical behavior of the SC magnets is investigated by statistical data analysis of magnet current and voltage signals. Many data cleaning techniques are employed to reduce the noise in the observed data. Piecewise regression has been used to examine the saturation effects in magnet inductance. The goodness-of-fit of the model is assessed by field testing and comprehensive residual analysis. Finally a new model is suggested for the magnets to be implemented for more accurate results.
slides icon Slides MOM310 [0.822 MB]  
poster icon Poster MOM310 [1.028 MB]  
MOPGF015 Fast Wire Scanner Upgrade for LCLS controls, interface, emittance, EPICS 1
  • J.M. D'Ewart, M.L. Campell, P. Krejcik, H. Loos, K. Luchini
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Wire scanners are a main diagnostic tool for transverse beam size and emittance measurements at LCLS. The original SLAC wire scanners were not optimized for speed (taking minutes to scan), and can't perform at the desired level of position resolution necessary for measuring LCLS' small beam size. A new fast wire scanner, based on a dc linear servo motor, has been designed and installed in the LCLS. The new fast wire scanner has several advantages over the original wire scanner: scan times are reduced from minutes to seconds while minimizing wire vibrations. Rather than counting open-loop step pulses, the new fast wire scanner uses real time position capture for beam synchronous sampling of the wire position, enhancing beam profile accuracy.  
MOPGF024 Testing Framework for the LHC Beam-based Feedback System framework, software, feedback, hardware 1
  • S. Jackson, D. Alves, L. Di Giulio, K. Fuchsberger, B. Kolad, E. Pedersen
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  During the first LHC shut-down period, software for the LHC Beam-based Feedback Controller (BFC) and Service Unit (BFSU) was migrated to new 64-bit multi-core hardware and to a new version of CERN's FESA3 real-time framework. This coincided with the transfer of responsibility to a new software team, charged with readying the systems for beam in 2015 as well as maintaining and improving the code-base in the future. In order to facilitate the comprehension of the system's 90'000+ existing lines of code, a new testing framework was developed which would not only serve to define the system's functional specification, but also provide acceptance tests for future releases. This paper presents how the BFC and BFSU systems were decoupled from each other as well as from the LHC plant's measurement and correction systems, thus allowing simulation-data driven instances to be deployed in a test environment. It also describes the resulting Java-based domain-specific language (DSL) which, when employed in JUnit, allows the formation of repeatable acceptance tests.  
MOPGF027 Real-Time EtherCAT Driver for EPICS and Embedded Linux at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) EPICS, controls, Linux, interface 1
  • D. Maier-Manojlovic
    PSI, Villigen, Villigen, Switzerland
  EtherCAT bus and interface are widely used for external module and device control in accelerator environments at PSI, ranging from undulator communication, over basic I/O control to Machine Protection System for the new SwissFEL accelerator. A new combined EPICS/Linux driver has been developed at PSI, to allow for simple and mostly automatic setup of various EtherCAT configurations. The new driver is capable of automatic scanning of the existing device and module layout, followed by self-configuration and finally autonomous operation of the EtherCAT bus real-time loop. If additional configuration is needed, the driver offers both user- and kernel-space APIs, as well as the command line interface for fast configuration or reading/writing the module entries. The EtherCAT modules and their data objects (entries) are completely exposed by the driver, with each entry corresponding to a virtual file in the Linux procfs file system. This way, any user application can read or write the EtherCAT entries in a simple manner, even without using any of the supplied APIs. Finally, the driver offers EPICS interface with automatic template generation from the scanned EtherCAT configuration.  
poster icon Poster MOPGF027 [30.572 MB]  
MOPGF092 Integration of the TRACK Beam Dynamics Model to Decrease LINAC Tuning Times simulation, controls, emittance, database 1
  • C.E. Peters, C. Dickerson, F. Garcia, M.A. Power
    ANL, Argonne, Illinois, USA
  Funding: This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.  This research used resources of ANLs ATLAS facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility
The Accelerator R&D Group within the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Physics Division maintains a beam dynamics model named TRACK. This simulation code has the potential to assist operators in visualizing key performance parameters of the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerating System (ATLAS). By having real-time access to visual and animated models of the particle beam transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, operators can more quickly iterate to a final machine tune. However, this effort requires a seamless integration into the control system, both to extract initial run-time information from the accelerator, and to present the simulation results back to the users. This paper presents efforts to pre-process, batch execute, and visualize TRACK particle beam physics simulations in real-time via the ATLAS Control System.
poster icon Poster MOPGF092 [2.199 MB]  
MOPGF093 Real-time Beam Loading Compensation for Single SRF Cavity LLRF Regulation LLRF, cavity, detector, electron 1
  • I. Rutkowski, M. Grzegrzólka
    Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw, Poland
  • Ł. Butkowski, Ch. Schmidt
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • M. Kuntzsch
    HZDR, Dresden, Germany
  Stable and reproducible generation of a photon beam at Free Electron Lasers (FELs) necessitates a low energy spread of the electron beam. A low level radio frequency (LLRF) control system stabilizes the RF field inside accelerating modules. An electron beam passing through the cavity induces a drop in the actual stored field proportional to the charge, the cavity shunt impedance, and the bunch repetition rate. The feedback loop compensates for the perturbation after the accelerating gradient drops. Due to the digital loop delay and limited bandwidth of the closed loop system, this disturbance induces control errors which can increase beam energy spread. An open-loop controller uses information obtained from the beam diagnostic systems accounting in real-time for fluctuations of the beam current. This paper describes the bunch charge detection scheme, its implementation, as well as results of the tests performed on the ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) radiation source at the HZDR (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf) facility.  
poster icon Poster MOPGF093 [4.046 MB]  
MOPGF143 Integration of Heterogeneous Access Control Functionalities Using the New Generation of NI cRIO 903x Controllers controls, software, database, LabView 1
  • F. Valentini, T. Hakulinen, L. Hammouti, P. Ninin
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Engineering of Personnel Protection Systems (PPS) in large research facilities, such CERN, represents nowadays a major challenge in terms of requirements for safety and access control functionalities. PPS are usually conceived as two separate independent entities: a Safety System dealing with machine interlocks and subject to rigid safe-ty standards (e.g. IEC-61508); and a conventional Access Control System made by integration of different COTS technologies. The latter provides a large palette of func-tionalities and tools intended either to assist users access-ing the controlled areas, either to automate a certain number of control room operator's tasks. In this paper we analyse the benefits in terms of performance, cost and system maintainability of adopting the new generation of NI multipurpose CRIO 903x controllers. These new de-vices allows an optimal integration of a large set of access control functionalities, namely: automatic control of mo-torized devices, identification/count of users in zone, im-plementation of dedicated anti-intrusion algorithms, graphical display of relevant information for local users, and remote control/monitoring for control room opera-tors.  
poster icon Poster MOPGF143 [1.562 MB]  
TUD3O05 Integrating control applications into different control systems controls, EPICS, software, status 1
  • M. Killenberg, M. Hierholzer, Ch. Schmidt
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany
  • S. Marsching
    Aquenos GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany
  • J. Wychowaniak
    TUL-DMCS, Łódź, Poland
  Funding: This work is supported by the Helmholtz Validation Fund HVF-0016 "MTCA.4 for Industry".
Porting complex device servers from one control system to another is often a major effort due to the strong code coupling of the business logic to control system data structures. Together with its partners from the Helmholtz Association and from industry, DESY is developing a control system adapter. It allows to write applications in a control system independent way, while still being able to update the process variables and react on control system triggers. We report on the status of the project and the experience we gained trying to write portable device servers.
slides icon Slides TUD3O05 [0.623 MB]  
WEC3O02 The Phase-Locked Loop Algorithm of the Function Generation/Controller controls, timing, Ethernet, network 1
  • M. Magrans de Abril, Q. King, R. Murillo-Garcia
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  This paper describes the phase-locked loop algorithms that are used by the real-time power converter controllers at CERN. The algorithms allow the recovery of the machine time and events received by an embedded controller through WorldFIP or Ethernet-based fieldbuses. During normal operation, the algorithm provides less than 10 μs of time precision and 0.5 μs of clock jitter for the WorldFIP case, and less than 2.5 μs of time precision and 40 ns of clock jitter for the Ethernet case.  
slides icon Slides WEC3O02 [1.886 MB]  
WED3O01 MASSIVE: an HPC Collaboration to Underpin Synchrotron Science experiment, synchrotron, software, scattering 1
  • W.J. Goscinski
    Monash University, Faculty of Science, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
  • K. Bambery, C.J. Hall, A. Maksimenko, S. Panjikar, D. Paterson, C.G. Ryan, M. Tobin
    ASCo, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
  • C.U. Felzmann
    SLSA, Clayton, Australia
  • C. Hines, P. McIntosh
    Monash University, Clayton, Australia
  • D.A. Thompson
    CSIRO ATNF, Epping, Australia
  MASSIVE is the Australian specialised High Performance Computing facility for imaging and visualisation. The project is a collaboration between Monash University, Australian Synchrotron and CSIRO. MASSIVE underpins a range of advanced instruments, with a particular focus on Australian Synchrotron beamlines. This paper will report on the outcomes of the MASSIVE project since 2011, in particular focusing on instrument integration, and interactive access. MASSIVE has developed a unique capability that supports an increasing number of researchers generating and processing instrument data. The facility runs an instrument integration program to help facilities move data to an HPC environment and provide in-experiment data processing. This capability is best demonstrated at the Imaging and Medical Beamline where fast CT reconstruction and visualisation is now essential to performing effective experiments. The MASSIVE Desktop provides an easy method for researchers to begin using HPC, and is now an essential tool for scientists working with large datasets, including large images and other types of instrument data.  
slides icon Slides WED3O01 [28.292 MB]  
WEPGF036 Data Categorization And Storage Strategies At RHIC Linux, network, operation, collider 1
  • S. Binello, K.A. Brown, T. D'Ottavio, R.A. Katz, J.S. Laster, J. Morris, J. Piacentino
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
This past year the Controls group within the Collider Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory replaced the Network Attached Storage (NAS) system that is used to store software and data critical to the operation of the accelerators. The NAS also serves as the initial repository for all logged data. This purchase was used as an opportunity to categorize the data we store, and review and evaluate our storage strategies. This was done in the context of an existing policy that places no explicit limits on the amount of data that users can log, no limits on the amount of time that the data is retained at its original resolution, and that requires all logged data be available in real-time. This paper will describe how the data was categorized, and the various storage strategies used for each category.
poster icon Poster WEPGF036 [0.337 MB]  
WEPGF102 Solving the Synchronization Problem in Multi-Core Embedded Real-Time Systems operation, controls, embedded, hardware 1
  • F. Hoguin, S. Deghaye
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  Multi-core CPUs have become the standard in embedded real-time systems. In such systems, where several tasks run simultaneously, developers can no longer rely on high priority tasks blocking low priority tasks. In typical control systems, low priority tasks are dedicated to receiving settings from the control room, and high priority real-time tasks, triggered by external events, control the underlying hardware based on these settings. Settings' correctness is of paramount importance and they must be modified atomically from a real-time task point of view. This is not feasible in multi-core environments using classic double-buffer approaches, mainly because real-time tasks can overlap, preventing buffer swaps. Other common synchronization solutions involving locking critical sections introduce unpredictable jitter on real-time tasks, which is not acceptable in CERN's control system. A lock-free, wait-free solution to this problem based on a triple buffer, guaranteeing atomicity no matter the number of concurrent tasks, is presented. The only drawback is potential synchronization delay on contention. This solution has been implemented and tested in CERN's real-time C++ framework.  
poster icon Poster WEPGF102 [0.433 MB]  
WEPGF106 CCLIBS: The CERN Power Converter Control Libraries controls, timing, software, operation 1
  • Q. King, K.T. Lebioda, M. Magrans de Abril, M. Martino, R. Murillo-Garcia
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • A. Nicoletti
    EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
  Accurate control of power converters is a vital activity in large physics projects. Several different control scenarios may coexist, including regulation of a circuit's voltage, current, or field strength within a magnet. Depending on the type of facility, a circuit's reference value may be changed asynchronously or synchronously with other circuits. Synchronous changes may be on demand or under the control of a cyclic timing system. In other cases, the reference may be calculated in real-time by an outer regulation loop of some other quantity, such as the tune of the beam in a synchrotron. The power stage may be unipolar or bipolar in voltage and current. If it is unipolar in current, it may be used with a polarity switch. Depending on the design, the power stage may be controlled by a firing angle or PWM duty-cycle reference, or a voltage or current reference. All these different cases are supported by the CERN Converter Control Libraries (CCLIBS), which are open-source C libraries that include advanced reference generation and regulation algorithms. This paper introduces the libraries and reviews their origins, current status and future.  
poster icon Poster WEPGF106 [2.797 MB]  
WEPGF122 Real-Time Performance Improvements and Consideration of Parallel Processing for Beam Synchronous Acquisition (BSA) EPICS, timing, linac, operation 1
  • K.H. Kim, S. Allison, T. Straumann, E. Williams
    SLAC, Menlo Park, California, USA
  Funding: Work supported by the the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515 for LCLS I and LCLS II.
Beam Synchronous Acquisition (BSA) provides a common infrastructure for aligning data to each individual beam pulse, as required by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). BSA allows 20 independent acquisitions simultaneously for the entire LCLS facility and is used extensively for beam physics, machine diagnostics and operation. BSA is designed as part of LCLS timing system and is currently an EPICS record based implementation, allowing timing receiver EPICS applications to easily add BSA functionality to their own record processing. However, the non-real-time performance of EPICS record processing and the increasing number of BSA devices has brought real-time performance issues. The major reason for the performance problem is likely due to the lack of separation between time-critical BSA upstream processing and non-critical downstream processing. BSA is being improved with thread level programming, breaking the global lock in each BSA device, adding a queue between upstream and downstream processing, and moving out the non-critical downstream to a lower priority worker thread. The use of multiple worker threads for parallel processing in SMP systems is also being investigated.
poster icon Poster WEPGF122 [1.665 MB]  
WEPGF135 Using the Vaadin Web Framework for Developing Rich Accelerator Controls User Interfaces controls, framework, GUI, interface 1
  • K.A. Brown, T. D'Ottavio, W. Fu, S. Nemesure
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy
Applications used for Collider-Accelerator Controls at Brookhaven National Laboratory typically run as console level programs on a Linux operating system. One essential requirement for accelerator controls applications is bidirectional synchronized IO data communication. Several new web frameworks (Vaadin, GXT, node.js, etc.) have made it possible to develop web based Accelerator Controls applications that provide all the features of console based UI applications that includes bidirectional IO. Web based applications give users flexibility by providing an architecture independent domain for running applications. Security is established by restricting access to users within the local network while not limiting this access strictly to Linux consoles. Additionally, the web framework provides the opportunity to develop mobile device applications that makes it convenient for users to access information while away from the office. This paper explores the feasibility of using the Vaadin web framework for developing UI applications for Collider-Accelerator controls at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
poster icon Poster WEPGF135 [0.986 MB]  
THHA2I01 Developing Distributed Hard-Real Time Software Systems Using FPGAs and Soft Cores FPGA, controls, software, distributed 1
  • T. Włostowski, J. Serrano
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
  • F. Vaga
    University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
  Hard real-time systems guarantee by design that no deadline is ever missed. In a distributed environment such as particle accelerators, there is often the extra requirement of having diverse real-time systems synchronize to each other. Implementations on top of general-purpose multi-tasking operating systems such as Linux generally suffer from lack of full control of the platform. On the other hand, solutions based on logic inside FPGAs can result in long development cycles. A mid-way approach is presented which allows fast software development yet guarantees full control of the timing of the execution. The solution involves using soft cores inside FPGAs, running single tasks without interrupts and without an operating system underneath. Two CERN developments are presented, both based on a unique free and open source HDL core comprising a parameterizable number of CPUs, logic to synchronize them and message queues to communicate with the local host and with remote systems. This development environment is being offered as a service to fill the gap between Linux-based solutions and full-hardware implementations.  
slides icon Slides THHA2I01 [2.525 MB]  
THHB2O01 Preliminary Design of a Real-Time Hardware Architecture for eRHIC hardware, Ethernet, controls, software 1
  • R.J. Michnoff, P. Cerniglia, M.R. Costanzo, R.L. Hulsart, J.P. Jamilkowski, W.E. Pekrul, Z. Sorrell, C. Theisen
    BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York, USA
  Funding: Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
The 3.8 km circumference Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL has been in operation since 2000. An electron-ion collider (eRHIC), which is in the design phase, plans to use one of the existing ion rings and new electron rings constructed in the existing tunnel to provide collisions of up to 21.2 GeV electrons with up to 100 GeV gold ions, 250 GeV polarized protons, as well as other species. Many new real-time systems will be required to satisfy the needs of eRHIC, including over 2000 beam position monitors, 1000 beam loss monitors, 18 current monitors, feedback systems, controls for about 10,000 power supplies, machine protection system, new beam timing systems, and more. The selected architecture must be flexible, expandable, cost-effective, reliable, and easy to maintain. Interface with existing and new accelerator timing systems is required, and compatibility with existing infrastructure and equipment must be maintained. Embedded modules based on the Xilinx Zynq gate array, with direct Ethernet connection and on-board Linux, housed in multi-slot chassis (VME, VPX, TCA, etc.) is under consideration. Preliminary design concepts for the architecture will be presented.
slides icon Slides THHB2O01 [7.735 MB]  
THHB3O02 Real-Time Data Reduction Integrated into Instrument Control Software controls, CORBA, software, network 1
  • P. Mutti, F. Cecillon, C. Cocho, A. Elaazzouzi, Y. Le Goc, J. Locatelli, H. Ortiz
    ILL, Grenoble, France
  The increasing complexity of the experimental activity and the growing raw dataset collected during the measurements pushed the integration of the data reduction software within the instrument control. On-line raw data reduction allows users to take instant decisions based on the physical quantities they are looking for. In such a way, beam time is optimised avoiding oversampling. Moreover, the datasets are more consistent and the reduction procedure, becoming now part of the sequencer workflow, is well documented and can be saved for future use. A server and a client API that allows starting and monitoring the reduction procedures on remote machines and finally get their results, was designed. The implementation of the on-line data reduction on several instruments at the ILL as well as on the obtained performances, will be reported in this paper.  
slides icon Slides THHB3O02 [4.454 MB]